GADPH is an important enzyme in glycolysis, catalyzing the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Highly conserved across species, GADPH is known as a “housekeeping” gene, being stably expressed at high levels throughout the body. GAPDH antibodies are widely used as loading controls in Western blot assays, and for visualizing cells in fluorescence microscopy.
Original thought of a purely metabolic protein, recent GADPH antibody research has shown it can bind to a variety of macromolecules, and has a diverse number of cytosolic and nuclear functions. In the cytoplasm, GADPH is involved in Golgi-to-ER (endoplasmic reticulum) transport, binding to the Rab GTPase in pre-Golgi intermediates. It also appears to play an important role in cytoskeleton maintenance and tubulin bundling.
In the nucleus, GADPH has a high affinity for transfer RNA, and has been shown to regulate mRNA stability and control the expression of proteins such as CSF-1. GADPH antibody research conducted by Zheng et al in 2003, showed the protein to be part of the Oct-1 co-activator OCA-S complex, binding directly to Oct-1 and playing an essential role in S-phase-dependent transcription of histone H2B.
GADPH also plays a role in DNA repair. It was identified as part of a DNA–protein complex which bound to thioguanylated DNA, suggesting it may act as a detector protein for DNA modifications. In addition, the protein has been show to play a key role in apoptosis. In response to cellular stress, GADPH bound to Siah1, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, following S-nitrosylation (Hara et al, 2005.) The link between apoptosis and neurodegenerative disease is of increasing interest to researchers, and a follow-up study showed GAPDH S-nitrosylation was blocked by the Parkinson’s disease drug, Deprenyl.
GADPH also binds to the amyloid precursor protein, mutations of which are known to cause Alzheimer’s disease.As one of the world’s leading antibody suppliers, we at Novus Biologicals have a wide range of GADPH antibody products to choose from, of the highest purity and performance.