The concept of various psychological testing as a tool of personnel selection has steadily increased. The first psychological tests were conducted at the Boston elevated company. Nowadays the use of the test has become a common place in industry and it has become a big money spinning enterprise in India. Also, tests are now used on large scale in India. Indian industries have also started using psychological tests in the last few years, for recruitment purposes; however, it will take years before we reach the stage that the Americans or others have reached. Here our primary aim is to introduce the use of psychological testing in industry, particularly in selection and placement programs of an organisation.
Nature of Psychological tests:
Psychological testing is the most outstanding contribution that comes solely from the efforts and constant research by psychologists. It has immense value in the sense that these tests probably are the most sophisticated tools of measuring human characteristics and individual differences that form the very basis of personnel selection in Industrial Psychology. However these test do have their own limitations and disadvantages and it is not logical to believe that the tests are infallible and perfect tools of measurement.
Classification of Psychological tests:
A psychological test is not merely a series of questions or tasks that any intelligent person can put together. This test poses short and thin distinct marks and is highly effective instruments for measuring various characteristics like personality traits, intelligence, aptitude, attitudes etc. These tests are very carefully developed instruments following some highly standardized and intricate procedures discovered by the efforts of any psychologists over a long period of time. Thus, any kind of scientific psychological test must have a very high validity, reliability, objectivity and its results must be clearly interpretable. Various steps of standardization are effectively followed to achieve the strength a psychological test delivers.
- On the basis of sample behaviour: General Intelligence test, Multiple aptitude batteries, Special Aptitude Test, Tests of achievement, and Personality tests deserve a special mention. Pre employment personality test has best contribution in the selection procedures in that they can weed out potential trouble-shooters who can often unnecessarily involve good workers and spoil the climate of congeniality in the organisation.
- On the basis of use of tests: Selection tests Classification tests Placement tests.
- Individual vs. Group Tests
- Paper pencil tests vs. Performance test
- Language vs. Non Language test
- Speed vs. Power test.
Advantage of Psychological Testing
Despite the various possible pitfalls of testing it can be seen that an appropriate and adequate testing program can be of great use to any industrial organisation or any business organisation particularly in the selection, placement, promotions and transfer of workers, some obvious reasons of this can be:
- An objective method of personal appraisal.
- Low cost of testing in comparison to the high cost of any interview methods.
- The greatest advantage of psychological testing lies in the fact that it can improve and ease the selection process.